Publications & Results

Mr Paul Modi MD FRCS is a British, US and German-trained consultant cardiac surgeon with expertise in minimally invasive (keyhole) and robotic heart surgery.


  • 1

    Modi P, Chitwood WR Jr. Minimally invasive mitral valve surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis. CME article. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2008 Nov; 34: 943-52

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  • This meta-analysis quantifies the effects of minimally invasive mitral valve surgery on morbidity and mortality compared with conventional mitral surgery and demonstrates equivalent perioperative mortality, reduced need for reoperation for bleeding and a trend towards shorter hospital stays.  These benefits were evident despite longer cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross-clamp times in the minimally invasive group. Case-control studies show consistently less pain and faster recovery compared to those having a conventional approach. Data for minimally invasive mitral valve surgery after previous cardiac surgery are limited but consistently demonstrate reduced blood loss, fewer transfusions and faster recovery compared to reoperative sternotomy. Long-term follow-up data from multiple cohort studies are also examined revealing equivalent survival and freedom from reoperation. Thus, current clinical data suggest that minimally invasive mitral valve surgery is a safe and durable alternative to a conventional approach and is associated with less morbidity.
  • 2

    Modi P, Rodriguez E, Hargrove WC, Hassan A, Szeto W, Chitwood WR Jr. Minimally invasive video-assisted mitral valve surgery: a twelve-year two center experience in 1178 patients. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2009. Jun;137(6):1481-7. Epub 2009 Mar 29.

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  • This reviewed a 2-institution experience with minimally invasive mitral valve surgery over a 12-year.  A total of 1178 patients were included with mortality for isolated primary mitral valve repair and replacement of 0.2%and 3.6%, respectively.  It concluded that video-assisted mitral valve surgery is safe with high rates of valve repair, low morbidity and excellent outcomes.  Operative risk was increased if surgery was delayed until the onset of severe breathlessness or atrial fibrillation.
  • 3

    Modi P, Rodriguez E, Chitwood WR Jr. Robot-assisted cardiac surgery. Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery 2009 Sep;9(3):500-5. Epub 2009 Jun 19.

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  • This publication reviews the contemporary uses and results of the da Vinci telemanipulation system (Intuitive Surgical Inc.)  This technology has been applied to many cardiac surgical procedures, in particular, mitral valve repair and totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass grafting, allowing the surgeon to operate through 5 mm port sites rather than a traditional median sternotomy.
  • 4

    Modi P, Hassan A, Chitwood WR Jr. Minimally invasive transaortic thoracoscopic resection of an apical left ventricular myxoma. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2009. Aug;138(2):510-2.

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  • This documents the first reported minimally invasive procedure performed by Dr WR Chitwood and Mr P Modi to remove a benign tumour from deep within a patient’s heart through only a 2 inch incision between the ribs.
  • 5

    Modi P, Hassan A, Teng CJ, Chitwood WR Jr. ‘How many heart surgeons does it take to write a research paper?’ Seventy years of authorship proliferation and internationalization of the cardiothoracic surgical literature. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2008 Jul;136(1):4-6. Epub 2008 May 19.

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  • Publish or perish.  This reports the proliferation in the number of authors listed on manuscripts published in the three major cardiac surgical journals over a 70-year period, as well as the increasing diversification of country of origin of these manuscripts.